The most popular six factors contribute to the ris

2022-07-27
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Six factors contributed to the rise of Japanese construction machinery introduction: the history of Japanese construction machinery began with the import of construction machinery from overseas, taking the national reconstruction after World War II as an opportunity. However, after more than 50 years of development, it has not only met the domestic demand, but also actively expanded the overseas market and increased exports through various manufacturers. Now it has grown into an international global No

the history of Japanese construction machinery began with the import of construction machinery from overseas, taking the national reconstruction after World War II as an opportunity. However, after more than 50 years of development, it has not only met the domestic demand, but also actively expanded the overseas market and increased exports through various manufacturers. Now it has grown into an international second-largest construction machinery manufacturing power in the world. Reviewing its development mode and experience, six factors have contributed to the rise of Japanese construction machinery

production factors should establish and improve the comprehensive evaluation criteria and industry standards for plastic granulator equipment: demographic dividend + high-quality talents

Japan's demographic dividend began from 1930 to 1935 and ended from 1990 to 1995, lasting for nearly 60 years. In 1950, the proportion of working age population in Japan was 59.7%, and in 1965 it exceeded 68%. However, the proportion of the population over 65 years old as a population liability in the total population did not exceed 10% until 1985

while Japan's demographic dividend continues for a long time, it is a significant increase in Japan's high-quality talents. In 1961, the number of students in the Department of science and technology in Japan was 28737, but by 1973 it had reached 80619, an increase of about twice. In the early 1970s, among the university graduates in Japan, the number of engineering graduates per million people was twice that of the United States and three times that of Britain and France. In 1959, Japan was only about half of that of Britain and France. The high-quality and abundant working age population has provided sufficient human resources for the rise of Japanese construction machinery

demand conditions: the alternating relay between internal and external markets

the high level of Japanese fixed asset investment in the 1950s and 1970s drove the rapid growth of domestic construction machinery demand, and the local market is the leading market of Japanese construction machinery. During this period, Japanese construction machinery completed the process of import substitution. Continuous technological innovation made most of the construction machinery products localized and reached the international advanced level, which laid an excellent foundation for the export expansion and global development of Japanese construction machinery in the later period

with the end of Japan's urbanization process, the domestic market demand power is gradually weakening, and exports have become the main force driving the growth of Japan's construction machinery. As Japanese construction machinery has superior quality and performance, and hydraulic excavators, small excavators and other products are also very suitable for the specific needs of high-end consumer markets such as Europe and the United States at that time, the export of Japanese construction machinery has increased significantly driven by the North American and European markets

since the 1990s, emerging market economies such as China and Southeast Asia have entered a stage of rapid growth. Coupled with the increasing trade friction with Europe and the United States, Japan's construction machinery export market has gradually shifted to developing countries such as China, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Japanese construction machinery has achieved rapid growth in the alternative pull of domestic demand, European and American markets and emerging markets

enterprise war increased by 18.2% year on year; Gross profit of RMB 4.713 billion: technological innovation and efficiency improvement are the same theme

in the process of the rise of Japanese construction machinery, technological innovation and efficiency improvement have been running through the whole process. Japan's construction machinery has actively introduced foreign advanced technology, digested, absorbed and re innovated by taking advantage of the great investment in infrastructure construction made by post-war countries. After more than ten years of development, except for the super large and special construction machinery, most of the construction machinery in Japan has been localized, and has reached the international advanced level in performance, durability and reliability

in addition, efficient internal management and improvement of production efficiency are also important development strategies for Japanese construction machinery enterprises. In the middle and late stage of Japan's industrialization, efficiency improvement is an important path to absorb the rising costs and the pressure of yen appreciation

parts and financial leasing have become two magic weapons to win

to a certain extent, the core competitiveness of Japanese construction machinery is derived from the core competitiveness of key parts of construction machinery, which is the most value-added and competitive part of construction machinery. International construction machinery manufacturers such as Komatsu and Hitachi construction machinery can produce almost all the key parts, and the high quality and outstanding technology of the parts are an important source of their huge profits

taking the hydraulic component, the most important component of construction machinery, as an example, we can find that its development process is consistent with the development of Japanese construction machinery. The 1950s and 1970s were the high-speed growth period of Japanese construction machinery. Japanese hydraulic components also developed rapidly during this period. The average annual growth rate of delivery value was about 20%. According to the data of the delivery value of hydraulic components and the total output value of construction machinery from 1970 to 1978, the utilization rate of hydraulic components in the field of construction machinery has been maintained at about 5%

Japan's construction machinery financial leasing industry was founded in the 1950s and 1970s when the construction machinery grew rapidly. The prosperity of construction machinery gave birth to the rapid development of Japan's construction machinery financial leasing industry, and the growth of the financial leasing industry also promoted the continuous prosperity of Japan's construction machinery. The two are interdependent

the industrial scope ranks among the top 4 in China; The comprehensive competitiveness has been further improved. The sales of Japan's construction machinery to the financial leasing industry has been relatively stable, and its proportion in the domestic sales revenue of Japan's construction machinery industry has also remained at about 30%. In Japan's traditional leasing industry, construction machinery leasing has always occupied the most important position, with the business scale accounting for more than 50%, and in recent years it has reached about 80%. In 2008, the business scale of Japan's traditional leasing industry was 1497.22 billion yen, and the business scale of construction machinery leasing was 1147.03 billion yen, accounting for 76.6%. (the data here is the statistical caliber of the Ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan)

among the downstream industries of the traditional leasing industry, construction enterprises such as real estate, railway and highway are the largest demand users, accounting for more than 70%. As the construction investment of the whole society in Japan decreases year by year, the dependence of the construction industry on the leasing industry increases year by year, most of which is due to the increase of the dependence on the leasing of construction machinery

strong support from the government's industrial policies

the Japanese government has made great contributions in the process of the global rise of Japanese construction machinery. It is with the support of a series of industrial policies of the Japanese government that Japanese construction machinery has quickly completed import substitution, then expanded its exports, and finally supplied the world. For example, in the 1950s and 1970s, the Japanese government successively launched a series of infrastructure construction plans, such as power development, road construction, railway construction, etc., and domestic fixed asset investment increased significantly. At the same time, the Japanese government has established the cultivation policy of domestic construction machinery, introduced the reward policy for the mechanized construction of projects directly under the government, and the laws and regulations that mechanized construction is a necessary condition for participating in public works, which has effectively promoted the mechanization of construction and the localization of construction machinery from the macro policy. During this period, the demand for construction machinery was also growing

with the strong advocacy of the Japanese government for the mechanized construction of construction projects, the construction machinery in Japan has been growing at a high speed, while the labor productivity of construction projects in Japan has also been greatly improved, with an average annual growth rate of about 13%, while the average annual growth rate in the following 20 years was only about 1%

crisis breeds industrial upgrading opportunities

from the middle and late 1960s to the 1970s, Japan's machinery manufacturing industry faced a series of adverse factors, such as two oil crises, rising costs and the appreciation of the yen. Rising costs, slowing global economic growth and the accelerated appreciation of the yen have directly led to the growth of sales revenue and the reduction of profitability of Japan's machinery manufacturing industry, and also weakened the export competitiveness of Japan's machinery manufacturing industry

however, it is the oil crisis, rising costs and appreciation of the local currency that have promoted the successful upgrading of Japanese construction machinery, thus laying an important position of Japanese construction machinery in the global construction machinery industry

taking bulldozers, hydraulic excavators and loaders as examples, the proportion of the delivery value of hydraulic excavators with high profit margin in Japan increased from 31.54% in 1971 to 68.20% in 1977, while the proportion of bulldozers and loaders with low added value decreased from 31.54% and 36.92% to 17.81% and 13.99% respectively

at the same time, the structure of export products has been continuously optimized. The export of high value-added products such as hydraulic cranes and hydraulic excavators has increased rapidly, while the export of low marginal benefit products such as crawler tractors has decreased significantly

by carefully analyzing the export of Japanese construction machinery from 1965 to 1980, we can clearly find that the proportion of export revenue in the industry sales revenue increased from 2.4% in 1965 to 28.2% in 1980. At the same time, in terms of the proportion of construction machinery exports in Japan's total machinery manufacturing exports, the proportion showed an upward trend in the two oil crises from 1973 to 1974 and from 1978 to 1979, while agricultural machinery and textile machinery declined to varying degrees

the underlying reason why Japanese construction machinery can maintain its competitiveness in the difficult situation is that it has realized industrial upgrading through continuous independent innovation. Industrial upgrading has promoted the optimization of product structure. The result of product structure optimization is that the composition ratio of high value-added products has been significantly increased, so as to realize the recovery of profitability and adapt to the changes in overseas market demand

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