Catering and guiding in the hottest design

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Catering and guidance in design

Abstract: as we all know, design is people-oriented, so what kind of design can truly achieve people-oriented. As designers, do we emphasize to cater to the public's aesthetic taste, or should we shoulder the responsibility of guiding the public's benign aesthetics. Starting from the history of design, this paper expounds the relationship between the public aesthetic changes in the history of design and design. Using the method of contrast, this paper reveals the role of designers in the relationship between public aesthetics and design. Finally, it is concluded that designers should not blindly cater to the public aesthetic, but should take a long-term view and guide the public aesthetic from a benign point of view, so that design can play a role in promoting the development of human society and improving human life

key words: design, public aesthetics, catering, guiding

design. This concept covers almost all aspects of human life. It reflects the urgent need of people to adapt to the surrounding environment and improve the surrounding environment, from meeting basic needs to higher spiritual needs, and to seek a more optimized lifestyle. Design is accumulated by many factors, including social environment, natural environment, material resources, processing technology, aesthetic concepts, etc. today, we focus on human factors, because the purpose and motivation of people-oriented design can not be denied at any stage in the history of design. It's just that whether people-oriented at all stages has the real purpose of serving the public. People-oriented itself is a broad concept. People-oriented design needs to consider the natural and social characteristics of people with different fixtures. Today, the public aesthetic problems we want to discuss mainly belong to the fields of people's social characteristics, namely, occupation, position, cultural and educational level, class, nationality, religious belief, etc. It can be said that the reason why design exists is that it is accepted by the design object, that is, it resonates with the public's aesthetic concepts. So does our design continue and develop by catering to the aesthetics of the design object or guiding the aesthetics of the design object? It should be pointed out that our aesthetic here has covered a series of aesthetic elements such as technology, form and culture

maybe we can find the corresponding answer from the long history of design. Design came into being with labor. The initial design was almost formed at the moment when our ancestors knocked with self-made stone tools. At that time, as long as the tools were practical, what could work was beautiful design. People's aesthetic appreciation depends on meeting the basic needs of life. Later, about 17000 years ago, mountaintop cave people living in Zhoukoudian, Beijing began to use drilling, scraping, polishing and other technologies, and use natural materials such as stones, animal teeth, seashells to make decorations. They are the reflection of primitive human aesthetic concepts. From this moment, practicality has really changed into aesthetics. These ornaments reflect human faith and love for life. It can be said that the original aesthetic view began with people's understanding of nature. Some phenomena or fierce and majestic animals in nature that could not be known at that time had aesthetic value in their eyes. The performance of totem fully illustrates this point

The emergence of the class can be said to be the turning point of many phenomena in history, and the separation of aesthetic groups also appeared at this time. The ruling class uses all available forms to achieve its ruling purpose. As an indispensable aspect of life, design also shows strong political and religious colors. Class differentiation makes the ruling aristocracy hold the absolute majority of social wealth and means of production, so that they can legitimize and maximize the access to practical needs and aesthetic products for themselves and interest groups. Looking back at the history of China, the emergence of bronze brought out a "Bronze Age", which made the design of tools and appliances more diversified. However, because it was expensive at that time and was only used by the upper ruling class, there was no public aesthetics here. The design catered to the aesthetics of the ruling class and guided the passive aesthetics of the public. Bronze was widely used in the Shang and Zhou dynasties in China. Most of the bronze vessels in the Shang and Zhou dynasties were ritual vessels with exquisite shapes, dense and thick patterns, and most of them used fine patterns as the base to set off the main patterns of high relief. The most common patterns are cloud pattern, thunder pattern, Taotie pattern, cicada pattern, circle pattern, etc. These exquisite carvings give people a rich and serious impression. The theme of the patterns may be related to ghosts and superstitions, or they may be the remnants of national emblem. These increasingly complex utensil cultures represent a set of rituals designed to serve the ruling class

as the birthplace of human civilization, ancient Egypt formed a centralized autocratic system of the emperor in the Pharaoh's era, with well-developed religions serving its regime. Therefore, it pursued the power of shocking people in architectural art, and created amazing pyramids and Amun temples. The most mature representative of ancient Egyptian pyramids is the Giza Pyramids group built in the suburbs of Cairo from the 27th to 26th century BC. It consists of three huge pyramids. They are precise square pyramids with extremely simple form. The largest one is Khufu pyramid, 146.5 m high and 230.6 m long at the bottom. It is one of the most brilliant masterpieces in the history of human design. At that time, the ancient Egyptians still retained the primitive fetishism of the clan society. They believed that the mountains, deserts and rivers were sacred. Early emperors made use of primitive fetishism and were proclaimed as natural gods. Therefore, the typical characteristics of the images of mountains, deserts and long rivers were given to the monument of imperial power. In Egypt's natural environment, these characteristics are grand and simple. This aesthetic view, which was built by religion and ruling class, was attached to the simple and concise design of ordinary great Europe in the middle ages. The famous "Gothic style" came into being in this period. This is not only because the decline of the Roman era took away its glorious culture and outstanding technology, but also closely related to the political and religious culture at that time. The main ideology and superstructure of the European feudal system is Christianity, which preaches that secular life is evil and human desire is the source of all evil, and consciously slanders the classical culture containing realism and scientific rationality. The church not only rules people's spiritual life, but also controls all aspects of people's life. Because the church preaches abstinence and Puritan lifestyle, the production of various daily necessities is very simple or even simple. Gothic churches are the highest achievements of the middle ages, especially the Gothic architecture centered on France. The Gothic architecture replaces the measured materials with pointed arches, and draws the measured materials along the rod through the Roman arch. The wide windows are decorated with colored glass religious paintings, and the cluster columns, reliefs and other rich decorations are widely used. This kind of architecture meets the requirements of the church. The towering spires lead people's eyes to the empty sky, making people forget the reality and dream about the afterlife. It is under the oppression of the ruling class and religion that the public aesthetics is only a small group in essence, and the essence of design has also become a tool to rule people's thoughts. The aesthetic guidance here is a kind of negative guidance, which makes the public lose their self-worth. After the emergence of social division of labor, commodity resources became increasingly abundant. The emerging urban bourgeoisie demanded a struggle against the spiritual rule of the church in the ideological field. Therefore, a "Renaissance Movement" centered on Italy was formed to create public opinion for the establishment of capitalism. The central idea of the Renaissance is the so-called "humanism". It advocates that literature and art express people's thoughts and feelings, science seeks welfare for life, and advocates individual freedom to oppose the religious shackles of the middle ages. Although the Renaissance design still absorbed the essence of classical culture and only made the appearance more friendly, with the emergence of commercial competition, design has begun to pay attention to how to attract consumers, even though these consumers are generally aristocrats in the society

in some of the design periods we have seen above, design has basically become a ruling tool. The so-called beautiful products are products that reflect the concept of the ruling class and achieve the ruling purpose. In fact, this was closely related to the production mode at that time. The handicraft production mode could only meet the needs of a few people

the emergence of the industrial revolution has pushed mass production to reality, and public aesthetics has also been taken into account in the design. The original products were classified according to the aesthetic and income differences between the nobility and the general public. In the words of a printed cloth factory owner at that time, "fashion must consider the object it caters to." Just when we were full of excited expectations for this phenomenon, the trend of the arts and crafts movement pushed the process of industrialization to the opposite side, so that Britain, which was the first to complete the industrial revolution, did not become the first country to have industrial design. Maurice was a pioneer of the arts and crafts movement. He adhered to the idea of learning from nature by Ruskin and others, and thoroughly opposed industrialization. He believed that it had turned design into a responsibility of rough manufacture, and advocated returning to the handicraft period in the middle ages. In fact, his design contains elements of democracy, and he also believes that art should be enjoyed by all. However, his popular idea is not based on a full understanding of the positive value of machine production. It can be said that his so-called public aesthetics is just empty talk, which cannot be realized through handicraft style. The new art movement originated from the arts and crafts movement, but the difference is that it does not deny the role of machines. Although it also actively advocates to be a popular design, its decorative style is not suitable for industrial production. Other branches of the Art Nouveau movement, such as the Vienna separatists and the youth style, have turned natural lines into straight lines suitable for machine production. It can be said that this is a turning point for the public's aesthetic design

as the design historian said "If this' person 'only refers to a small number of dignitaries, it is an old-fashioned design activity. The nearly 5000 year history of human design civilization is actually a design history of dignitaries. Once the object of design satisfaction is the public, start in the tensile test under the main program module, articulated different subroutines module directly, can realize the function of independent or integrated." The emergence of modernist design makes machine production truly serve the public aesthetic. It also makes it feasible for designers to guide the public aesthetic through design. Under the influence of some art reform movements, such as constructivism and stylism, modernist design has emerged a number of pioneers of industrial design who have democratic ideas, fully affirm the production of large machines in industrial society, and appreciate new technologies and materials. Its geometric aesthetic design elements make the design simple and practical, and can be effectively provided to machine production, making mass production and product popularization possible. Here, the public is valued by the design and regarded as the ultimate goal of the design. It is worth mentioning that modernism overemphasizes the single geometric shape. Due to its influence, this geometric style has formed a worldwide "international style", especially the architecture, which is almost a unified square box. This kind of public aesthetic guidance obliterates personalization and diversification, and the stereotyped design style makes people's life seem boring

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